Kira Gor

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Ph.D. - Linguistics and Experimental Phonetics, Saint Petersburg State University
Ph.D. - Russian and Second Language Acquisition, Bryn Mawr College


Second language acquisition of phonology and morphology
Second language lexical access
Processing of inflectional morphology by native and non-native speakers
Linguistic correlates of second language proficiency
The heritage speaker


SLAA 741 Cognitive processes in second language learning
SLAA 742 Second language processing
SLAA 749F Second language acquisition and processing of phonology
SLAA 749L Phonology and morphology in L2 lexical access
SLAA 749V The L2 mental lexicon and issues in vocabulary learning
SLAA 772 Bilingualism and multilingualism
SLAA 773 The heritage speaker



Gor. K. (1998). Interlanguage Phonology and Second Language Orthography: Vowel Reduction in the Interlanguage of American Learners of Russian. Saint Petersburg: Saint Petersburg University Press.

Journal articles

Gor, K. (2003). Symbolic Rules Versus Analogy in the Processing of Complex Verbal Morphology. Regards Croisés sur L’Analogie. Revue d'Intelligence Artificielle, 17.5-6, 823-840. [pdf]

Gor, K., & Chernigovskaya, T. 2003. Mental Lexicon Structure in L1 and L2 Acquisition: Evidence from Russian. Glossos, issue 4.

Gor, K., & Chernigovskaya, T. (2004). Generation of Complex Verbal Morphology in First and Second Language Acquisition: Evidence from Russian. Nordlyd, 31.6, Supplement. [pdf]

Gor, K., Cook, S., V., Malyushenkova, V., & Vdovina, T. (2009). Verbs of Motion in Highly Proficient Learners and Heritage Speakers of Russian. Slavic and East European Journal, 53, 386-408. Special Issue on Verbs of Motion in Slavic, Guest editors V. Driagina-Hasko and R. Perelmutter. [pdf]

Gor, K., & Cook, S. (2010). Non-native processing of verbal morphology: In search of regularity. Language Learning, 60.1, 88-126. [pdf]

Gor, K. (2010). Beyond the obvious: Do second language learners process inflectional morphology? Language Learning, 60.1, 1-20. Introduction to the thematic issue. Guest editor K. Gor. [pdf]

Gor, K. & Vdovina, T. (2010). Frequency, regularity, and input in second language processing of Russian verbal inflection. Special issue of Slavic and East European Journal, 54.1, 7-31. Guest editors B. Rifkin and O. Kagan. [pdf]

Long, M. H., Gor, K., & Jackson, S. (2012). Linguistic correlates of second language proficiency: Proof of concept with ILR 2-3 in Russian. Studies in Second Language Acquisition34.1, 99-126. [pdf]

Gor, K., & Jackson, S. (2013). Morphological decomposition and lexical access in a native and second language: A nesting doll effect. Language and Cognitive Processes, 28.7, 1065-1091. [pdf]

Chrabaszcz, A., & Gor, K. (2014). Context effects in the processing of phonolexical ambiguity in L2. Language Learning, 64.3, 415-455. [pdf]

Gor, K. (2014). Raspberry, not a car: Context predictability and a phonological advantage in early and late learners’ processing of speech in noise. Frontiers in Psychology. December 2014, Volume 5, Article 1449.[pdf]

Cook, S., & Gor, K. (2015). Lexical access in L2: Representational deficit or processing constraint?  The Mental Lexicon, 10.2, 247-270. [Abstract]  

Cook, S. V., Pandža, N. B., Lancaster, A., & Gor, K. (2016). Fuzzy nonnative phonolexical representations lead to fuzzy form-to-meaning mappings. Frontiers in Psychology, September 2016, Volume 7, Article 1345. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2016.01345

Li, M., Jiang, N., & Gor, K. (2017). L1 and L2 processing of compound words: Evidence from masked priming experiments in English. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 20.2, 384-402. [Abstract

Romanova, N., & Gor, K. (2017). Processing of gender and number agreement in Russian as a second langiage: The devil is in the detail. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 39.1, 97-128. [Abstract

Freynik, S., Gor, K., & O'Rourke, P. (2017). L2 Processing of Arabic Derivational Morphology. The Mental Lexicon, 12.1, 21-50. [Abstract

Gor, K., Chrabaszcz, A., & Cook, S. (2017). Processing of native and nonnative inflected words: Beyond affix stripping. Journal of Memory and Language, 93, 315-332. [Abstract

Chrabaszcz, A. & Gor, K. (2017). Quantifying contextual effects in L2 processing of phonolexically ambiguous and unambiguous words. Applied Psycholinguistics, 38(4), 909-942. [Abstract

Gor, K. (2017). The mental lexicon of L2 learners of Russian: Phonology and morphology in lexical storage and access. Journal of Slavic Linguistics, 25.2, 277-302

Gor, K. (2018). Phonological priming and the role of phonology in nonnative word recognition. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 21(3), 437-442. [Abstract]

Gor, K., Chrabaszcz, A., & Cook, S. (2018). Early and late learners decompose inflected nouns, but can they tell which ones are inflected correctly? Journal of Second Language Studies, 1, 113-147. First View[Abstract]

Gor, K., Chrabaszcz, A., & Cook, S. (2019). A case for agreement: Processing of case inflection by early and late learners. Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism. 9(1), 6-41. [Abstract]

Gor, K. (2019). Morphosyntactic knowledge in late second language learners and heritage speakers of Russian. The Heritage Language Journal, 16(2), 124-150.

Gor, K., & Cook, S. V. (2020). A mare in a pub? Nonnative facilitation in phonological priming. Second Language Research. 36(1), 123-140. [Abstract]


Book chapters

Gor, K. (2000). Experimental Research of Vowel Reduction in Russian: Implications for Interlanguage Phonology and for Teaching Russian Pronunciation. In: Kagan, O., and Rifkin, B. (eds.).  The Learning and Teaching of Slavic Languages and Cultures: Toward the 21st Century, 193-214. Columbus, Ohio: Slavica.

Gor, K., Chernigovskaya, T. (2001). Rules in processing of Russian verbal morphology. In: Zybatow, G., Junghanns, U., Mehlhorn, G., and Szucsich, L. (eds.). Current Issues in Formal Slavic Linguistics. Frankfurt/Main: Peter Lang, 528-535. [pdf]

Gor, K. (2004). The Rules and Probabilities Model of Native and Second Language Morphological Processing. In: L. Verbitskaya, T. Chernigovskaya (eds.). Theoretical Problems of Linguistics. Papers  Dedicated  to 140 Anniversary of the Department of General Linguistics, St. Petersburg State University, 51-75. St. Petersburg: Philological Faculty of St. Petersburg State University Press. [pdf]

Gor, K., & Chernigovskaya, T. (2005). Formal Instruction and the Acquisition of Verbal Morphology. In: Housen, A., Pierrard, M. (eds.). Investigations in Instructed Second Language Acquisition, 131-164Mouton De Gruyter. [pdf]

Gor, K. (2007). Experimental Study of First and Second Language Morphological Processing. In: Gonzalez-Marquez, M., Mittelberg, I., Coulson, S., and Spivey, M. J. (eds.). Methods in Cognitive Linguistics, 367-398. Ithaca: John Benjamins. [pdf]

Gor, K., & Long, M. H. (2009). Input and second language processing. In: Ritchie, W. C., Bhatia, T. J. (eds.). Handbook of Second Language Acquisition, 445-472. New York: Academic Press. [pdf]

Gor, K., & Vatz, K. (2009). Less Commonly Taught Languages: Issues in Learning and Teaching. In: Long, M. H., & Doughty, K. (eds.), The Handbook of Language Teaching, 234-249. Wiley-Blackwell. [pdf]

Gor, K., Cook, S., V., Malyushenkova, V., & Vdovina, T. (2010). Russian verbs of motion: Second language acquisition and cognitive linguistics perspectives. V. Driagina-Hasko & R. Perelmutter (ed.) Multiple Perspectives on Slavic Verbs of Motion, 361-381. Amsterdam / Philadelphia: John Benjamins.

Gor, K. (2012). Phonetics, Phonology, and Morphology in Nonnative Lexical Access: Bondarko’s
Legacy. In: L. A. Verbitskaya & N. K. Ivanova (eds). Speaking Man: 21st Century Studies. Festschrift in Honor of Lija Bondarko, 206-214. Ivanovo: Ivanovo University of Chemical Technology.

Gor, K. (2014). Morphology and L2 vocabulary learning. The Encyclopedia of Applied Linguistics. Wiley-Blackwell. Chapelle, C. A. (gen. ed.). [pdf]

Gor, K. (2015). Phonology and morphology in lexical processing. In: Schwieter, J. W. (ed.). The Cambridge Handbook of Bilingual Processing, 173-199. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. [pdf]

Gor, K. (2015). Raspberry, not a car: Context predictability and a phonological advantage in early and late learners’ processing of speech in noise. In: Pliatsikas, C., Chondrogianni, V. (Eds.). Learning a Non-Native Language in a Naturalistic Environment: Insights from Behavioural and Neuroimaging Research, pp. 117-131. Lausanne: Frontiers Media. doi: 10.3389/978-2-88919-639-5 (Ebook chapter)

Tkachenko, E., Gor, K., and Chernigovskaya, T. (2016). What are little girls and boys made of? Acquisition of Russian verb morphology in monolingual and bilingual children. In: H.-O. Enger, M. I. Norvik Knoph, K. E. Kristoffersen, and M. Lind (Eds.). Festschrift in Honor of Hanne Simonsen, 255-274. Oslo: University of Oslo.

Cook, S. V., Pandža, N. B., Lancaster, A., & Gor, K. (2016). Fuzzy nonnative phonolexical representations lead to fuzzy form-to-meaning mappings. In: I. Darcy, A. Tremblay, & M. Simonet (Eds.). Phonology in the Bilingual and Bidialectal Lexicon, pp. 26-42. Lausanne: Frontiers Media. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2016.01345 (Ebook chapter, reprint of the article)

Gor, K. (2018).Yes to the king, and no to the ship: Heritage speakers differ from late second language learners in word recognition. In: S. Kresin and S. Baukus (Eds.) Connecting across Languages and Cultures: A Heritage Language Festschrift in Honor of Olga Kagan. Bloomington, Indiana: Slavica Publishers, 1–10.

Gor, K., and Chrabaszcz, A. (2019). Morphological processing of citation and non-citation inflected words by second language learners. In: R. Leow, (Ed.) Handbook of Classroom Learning: Processing and Processes, pp. 304-317Routledge. 25. 

Gor, K. (to appear). Word and multi-word processing: Memory-based and linguistic approaches. In: A. Godfroid & H. Hopp (Eds.). The Routledge Handbook of Second Language Acquisition and Psycholinguistics.



Davidson, D. E., Gor, K. S., & Lekic, M. D. (1996). Russian: Stage One: Live from Moscow! Textbook, vol. 1, 2. Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company: Dubuque, Iowa.

Lekic, M. D., Davidson, D. E., & Gor, K. S. (2008/2009). Russian: Stage One: Live from Russia! Textbook, vol. 1, 2. Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company: Dubuque, Iowa.